Ecma International、ECMAScript、JavaScript之间的关系

Ecma International

Ecma International is an industry association dedicated to the standardization of information and communication systems.

可见,Ecma International的本质是association。

A new name

To reflect the global activities of the Europe-based Ecma organization, the name of the association was changed in 1994 to: Ecma International – European association for standardizing information and communication systems. Though before 1994, ECMA was known as “European Computer Manufacturers Association”, after 1994, when the organization became global, the “trademark” “Ecma” was kept for historical reasons.

可见,Ecma International才是这个association的规范称法。

EcmaECMA是老称法,不过现在这样称呼该association也ok,毕竟Ecma International自己有时也这样称呼自己,如下所示:

For any requests, questions, or issues you can contact Ecma by using the form below. For immediate assistance, you may also call the Ecma Secretariat.

该association下的Ecma award program也可以关注下:

The Ecma award program was established to recognize contributions by individuals to the development of standards and the benefit of the ICT and consumer electronics industries. The awards include the Ecma Fellow award and the Ecma recognition award.



This Standard defines the ECMAScript 2021 general-purpose programming language.

可见,ECMAScript® 2021 language specification是一个specification,其number为ECMA-262



Since publication of the first edition in 1997, ECMAScript has grown to be one of the world’s most widely used general-purpose programming languages. It is best known as the language embedded in web browsers but has also been widely adopted for server and embedded applications.

ECMAScript is an object-oriented programming language for performing computations and manipulating computational objects within a host environment. ECMAScript as defined here is not intended to be computationally self-sufficient; indeed, there are no provisions in this specification for input of external data or output of computed results. Instead, it is expected that the computational environment of an ECMAScript program will provide not only the objects and other facilities described in this specification but also certain environment-specific objects, whose description and behaviour are beyond the scope of this specification except to indicate that they may provide certain properties that can be accessed and certain functions that can be called from an ECMAScript program.

ECMAScript was originally designed to be used as a scripting language, but has become widely used as a general-purpose programming language. A scripting language is a programming language that is used to manipulate, customize, and automate the facilities of an existing system. In such systems, useful functionality is already available through a user interface, and the scripting language is a mechanism for exposing that functionality to program control. In this way, the existing system is said to provide a host environment of objects and facilities, which completes the capabilities of the scripting language. A scripting language is intended for use by both professional and non-professional programmers.

ECMAScript was originally designed to be a Web scripting language, providing a mechanism to enliven Web pages in browsers and to perform server computation as part of a Web-based client-server architecture. ECMAScript is now used to provide core scripting capabilities for a variety of host environments. Therefore the core language is specified in this document apart from any particular host environment.

ECMAScript usage has moved beyond simple scripting and it is now used for the full spectrum of programming tasks in many different environments and scales. As the usage of ECMAScript has expanded, so have the features and facilities it provides. ECMAScript is now a fully featured general-purpose programming language.

可见,ECMAScript的本质是general-purpose programming language


ECMAScript® is the scripting language that is used to create web pages with dynamic behavior. ECMAScript®, which is also commonly known by the name JavaScript™, is an essential component of every web browser and the ECMAScript® standard is one of the core standards that enable the existence of interoperable web applications on the World Wide Web.

ECMAScript^®^ is a registered trademark of Ecma International.

JavaScript^TM^ is a trademark of Oracle.





The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community where Member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop Web standards. Led by Web inventor and Director Tim Berners-Lee and CEO Jeffrey Jaffe, W3C’s mission is to lead the Web to its full potential. Contact W3C for more information.




ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 167 national standards bodies.

Because ‘International Organization for Standardization’ would have different acronyms in different languages (IOS in English, OIN in French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), our founders decided to give it the short form ISO. ISO is derived from the Greek ‘isos’, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, we are always ISO.